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Batson (1984) has proposed a model for differentiating between altruistically (sympathetically) motivated helping and egoistically (personal distress) motivated helping. In his view, because the altruist' s goal is to reduce the other' s distress, the costs for not helping are high, whereas there is little gain for the potential helper in escaping (leaving before helping). In contrast, if the goal for helping is primarily egoistic (the reduction of aversive personal arousal), this goal can be more easily achieved by escaping than helping, if escape is possible and easy.
Clearly, prosocial affects such as empathy could play a role in goal selection and resolution of goal conftict. However, because emotions and motivations are not readily accessible to empirical measurement, von Cranach et al. (1982) and many other action theorists have chosen to focus on the cognitive and behavioral components of action. Values, including moral values, are an important component of action theory models of behavior. Values are defined by von Cranach et al. (1982) as "an enduring, non-specific cognition the content of which is esteemed and to be striven for.
We are likely to appeal to so me such inner virtue, however, to explain why a person behaves weil with respect to his fellow men, but he does so not because his fellow men have endowed hirn with a sense of responsibility of obligation or with loyalty or respect for others but because they have arranged effective social contingencies. " 1107-108). 18 2. PHILOSOPHICAL AND THEORETICAL ROOTS Some classical learning theorists have even attempted to explain moral principles such as a sense of justice exclusively in terms of reinforcement.
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