By Chol-hwan Kang, Pierre Rigoulot
North Korea is this day one of many final bastions of hard-line Communism. Its leaders have saved a good grab on their one-party regime, quashing any nascent competition events and sending all suspected dissidents to its brutal focus camps for "re-education." Kang Chol-hwan is the 1st survivor of 1 of those camps to flee and inform his tale to the area, documenting the extraordinary stipulations in those gulags and supplying a private perception into lifestyles in North Korea. half horror tale, half ancient record, half memoir, half political tract, this list of 1 man's affliction supplies eyewitness evidence to an ongoing sorrowful bankruptcy of recent history.</Div>
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Extra resources for Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag
Studies on the Newly Industrialized Countries (NICs) also saw the Hong Kong government during the economic take-off period as committed to a laissez-faire ideology. Haggard (1990: 115) considered the Hong Kong government as deeply committed to laissez-faire during the export-led drive in the 1960s and 1970s. To Haggard, Hong Kong had no manufacturing parastatals, little protection towards domestic capital, no restrictions on entry, on import of technology, or on repatriation of profits, and no credit or tax incentives (Haggard and Cheng, 1987).
By 2000, of the 30 FC seats elected in the Legco election, only nine were elected by individuals, with the rest all elected by corporations and organizations. 1). This, however, was not enough to guarantee the loyalty of these groups to the outgoing colonial master. Lau (1999, pp. 52–3) pointed to several major trends of elite reintegration during the political transition, one of which was the pro-British elites, most notably the business elites, gradually deserting the British and inclining towards China.
For example, the government played an important role in negotiating tariffs and quotas with foreign economic entities. The Industry Department also discussed quotas with local textile firms so that benefits could be distributed among different industrial groups (Castells, Goh and Kwok, 1990, p. 90). The quotas then became a monopolistic advantage to selected producers who owned the exclusive right to export through trade deals endorsed and engineered by the government (Goodstadt, 2004, p. 128).
Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag by Chol-hwan Kang, Pierre Rigoulot