By Stephen P. Cohen, Sunil Dasgupta
India's becoming affluence has led specialists to foretell a big rearmament attempt. The second-most populous state on the planet is commencing to wield the industrial strength anticipated of this type of behemoth. Its border with Pakistan is a tinderbox, the subcontinent is still susceptible to non secular extremism, and an army contention among India and China may possibly erupt sooner or later. India has lengthy had the incentive for modernizing its military—it now has the assets to boot. What should still we think to determine sooner or later, and what's going to be the most likely ramifications? In Arming with no Aiming, Stephen Cohen and Sunil Dasgupta solution these an important questions.
India's military wish new guns worthy greater than $100 billion. yet almost all these guns needs to come from international providers as a result of the disasters of India's indigenous examine and improvement. guns providers from different international locations are queuing up in New Delhi. an extended dating among India and Russian brands is going again to the chilly conflict. extra lately, India and Israel have constructed robust army alternate ties. Now, a brand new army courting with the USA has generated the best desire for army transformation in India.
Against this backdrop of latest affluence and newfound entry to overseas army know-how, Cohen and Dasgupta examine India's army modernization to discover haphazard army swap that lacks political path, suffers from balkanization of army association and doctrine, is still restricted via slender potential making plans, and is pushed via the pursuit of know-how unfastened from military-strategic pursuits. the nature of army swap in India, particularly the disorder within the political-military institution with reference to procurement, is eventually the results of a historic doctrine of strategic restraint in position when you consider that Nehru. In that context, its process of arming with out strategic goal is still plausible as India seeks great-power lodging of its upward push and doesn't are looking to glance threatening. the risk lies in its modernization efforts precipitating a interval of strategic statement or contributing to misperception of India's intentions by way of Pakistan and China, its such a lot instant rivals.
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Extra resources for Arming Without Aiming: India's Military Modernization
Org/databases/armstransfers). Indian spending on defense is similar, but China’s total spending far exceeds India’s, and the military gap between New Delhi and Beijing is growing rather than shrinking. Pakistan spends more on defense as a percentage of GDP than India, and is able to hold India to a strategic standoff. In absolute terms, Pakistani defense spending has always been less than India’s, though historically Islamabad has tried to maintain military parity on its eastern border. In the past Pakistan spent approximately 6 percent of its GDP on defense, though there has been a sharp downturn since 1997.
The assumption is that military spending should be a function of the size of the economy, a notion inconsistent with the realism of threat-driven military posture. While a bigger economy may mean more to defend, it is not necessarily so. Still, long-term co-occurrence of affluence and military strength is a central proposition in international relations theory. As Table 1-1 shows, the Indian Army received 54 percent of the total defense budget in 2009. The Indian Air Force received 24 percent, and the Indian Navy, 15 percent.
As Table 1-1 shows, the Indian Army received 54 percent of the total defense budget in 2009. The Indian Air Force received 24 percent, and the Indian Navy, 15 percent. Defense research and development received 6 percent. The army’s allocations since 2007 reverse a decade-long trend, where it had been losing budgetary ground to the IAF and the Indian Navy. In particular, the Indian Navy’s budget had risen to 18 percent of the total expenditure. The IAF, the country’s premier instrument of power projection, is also on a downward trend though its relative decline is slower.
Arming Without Aiming: India's Military Modernization by Stephen P. Cohen, Sunil Dasgupta