By Angus Maddison
This publication was once first released in 1971.
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Extra resources for Asia: Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan Since the Moghuls
2 See particularly R. C. Dutt, op. cit. Dutt was a spokesman of landlord interests who argued strongly against 'excessive' land taxation. He was one of the early leaders of the nationalist movement whose spurious arguments still unfortunately carry some weight. 3 See D. Kumar, Land and Caste in South India, Cambridge, 1965, who estimates that landless labourers were 15 per cent of the rural population of South India in 1800. Mrs Kumar's book reviews the extensive literature which attempts to show that the British created the class of landless labourers.
G. blacksmiths, carpenters, potters, cobblers, weavers, washermen, barbers, water carriers, astrologers, watchmen and, occasionally, dancing girls. Spinning was not a specialized craft but was carried out by village women. These artisan families did not sell their products for money but had a hereditary patron-client (jajmani) relationship with a group of cultivating families. Thus a washerman or barber would serve a family's wants free throughout the year and get payment in kind at harvest time.
C. Neale, Economic Change in Rural India, Yale University Press, 1962, p. 63. g. the Bengal Act X of 1859, the Bengal Tenancy Act of 1885, the Oudh SubSettlement Act of 1866, the Deccan Agriculturalists Relief Act of 1879 and the Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900. 47 CLASS STRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH possible to mortgage land. The status of moneylenders was also improved by the change from Muslim to British law. There had been moneylenders in the Moghul period, but their importance grew substantially under British rule, and over time a considerable amount of land changed hands through foreclosures1.
Asia: Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan Since the Moghuls by Angus Maddison