By T. Fenchel, G.M. King and T.H. Blackburn (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Bacterial Biogeochemistry
Among them, six elements dominate quantitatively: C, O, N, H, P, and S constituting about 55, 20, 10, 8, 3, and 1 % of dry weight, respectively. In addition, living organisms always include the essential electrolytes (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl) as well as several metals (Fe, Cu, Co, Mo, Ni, Zn, W, and V, mainly as constituents of particular enzymes); I, F, Br, and Se are also included among the essential elements. Bacteria contain about 70% water. In terms of the chemical composition, the bulk of growing cells consists of proteins (55%) and RNA (20%), lipids (9%) and the rest is constituted by DNA, polysaccharides and monomers such as sugars and amino acids.
This suggests that in the diffusion limited case the uptake by the cell is only a function of cell size, the bulk concentration, and the diffusion coefficient of the substrate in question. 3) with C’ we obtain an expression for the “clearance of the cell”; that is, the volume of water the cell can clear of substrate per unit time ( 4πRD). If we further divide the expression with cell volume (4/3πR3), assuming that the needs of the cell are proportional to cell volume, we obtain: E 3 R 2 D. 4) This is a meaningful measure of the competitive efficiency or affinity in a nutrient limited situation; the bacterium with the highest value of E will be able to extract the most substrate per unit cell volume.
After transport into the cells, sulfate is activated at the expense of ATP to form adenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (APS), which is then phosphorylated to form phosphoadenosine-5’-phosphosulfate (PAPS) that is subsequently reduced to S2 via sulfite. Note that dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide is coupled to ATP conservation, while assimilatory reduction requires ATP, even though the reduction in both cases is thermodynamically favourable. A similar situation exists for dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate reduction.
Bacterial Biogeochemistry by T. Fenchel, G.M. King and T.H. Blackburn (Auth.)